RESULTS OF TESTING OF LEADING BRAND OF PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OIL
A leading brand of partially hydrogenated soybean oil was included in the contest as a control.
There are five categories of results.
Gas chromatography using the approved American Oil Chemists' Society method was used to measure the trans fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturated fat percentages in the fresh unused oils. Note that the percentages consist of identifiable fatty acids only.
The trans fat and other fat percentages affect health of course, but also compliance with any existing and future labeling laws and regulations.
CATEGORY ONE RESULTS
Each oil was used to fry French fries 300 times. We wanted to know which ones stood up best to heavy duty frying.
Total Polar Materials (TPM) is the best indicator of fry life and more reliable and comprehensive than free fatty acids. The TPM percentage rises as the oil is used. Therefore, the lower the TPM score the better. If and when an oil reaches 24% TPM, its fry life has ended and it must be discarded.
The method used to test for TPM was Column Chromatography approved method AOCS Cd 20-91.
CATEGORY TWO RESULT
END OF FRY LIFE = 24%
An oil should be discarded before it reaches 24% TPM if it develops off-flavors or off-odors or loses its good texture or appearance.
CATEGORY THREE RESULTS
The official finding of Texas A&M University regarding the fry life of the 10 oils cooked in French fries across days 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 and 13 based on trained panel evaluation is that the oils did not change in sensory attributes except for light color.
It is apparent that sensory differences were minimal between the oils and that very minor changes occurred during repeated heating and usage of the oils. If oil deterioration was occurring, cardboardy odor and flavor would expectantly increase. With further deterioration, fishy and painty odors and flavors would begin to increase as cardboardy decreased or was replaced by fishy and painty odors and flavor. In highly oxidized oils, painty odor and flavor would be predominant. These changes did not occur in this study indicating that these 10 oils maintained quality during repeated frying for 13 days and that differences in French fries cooked in these 10 oils were not practically impacted in flavor, taste, texture or appearance.
The oil in the fryers and all makeup oil added to the fryers were weighed regularly. The uncooked weights of the French fries placed in the fryers were determined. A calculation was performed to determine how many pounds of fries were cooked per pound of oil. The higher the number, the more fries were produced per pound of oil.
CATEGORY FOUR RESULTS
LBS OF FRENCH FRIES COOKED PER LB OF OIL
On the second day of frying, 49 or 50 consumers were asked to evaluate the cooked French fries based on appearance, color, crispiness, greasiness, flavor, and overall liking.
All testing was blind in that the consumers did not know what oils were used to cook the fries. Samples were "rotated" to avoid procedural bias.
A major brand of partially hydrogenated soybean oil was used as a control.
CATEGORY FIVE RESULTS
1 = DISLIKE EXTREMELY
PHO = Major brand of partially hydrogenated soybean oil
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